Stathers.net

GnuTLS, a Thawte CA certificate and CVE-2015-7575

14 January 2016

TLDR;

If a server is using a certificate chain signed by the Thawte Premium Server CA (SHA1 Fingerprint=62:7F:8D:78:27:65:63:99:D2:7D:7F:90:44:C9:FE:B3:F3:3E:FA:9A) AND that server is distributing that certificate as part of its CA chain, clients using libgnutls26 will not establish a connection. This library does not allow RSA+MD5 certificates and this root CA certificate is such a certificate. Good news though, simply replace the installed certificate with the SHA1 version available from their website.

https://search.thawte.com/support/ssl-digital-certificates/index?page=content&id=AR1470


Overview

I suddenly could not send email using Mutt and some of my colleagues reported similar issues with their Claws email clients as well, what was going on?

At the time of writing we were using Ubuntu 12.04 at work and there had recently been an update to the libgnutls26 package, this affected both the Claws and Mutt email clients as they both happened to being libgnutls.

gnutls26 (2.12.14-5ubuntu3.11) precise-security; urgency=medium

  • SECURITY UPDATE: incorrect RSA+MD5 support with TLS 1.2
    • debian/patches/CVE-2015-7575.patch: do not consider any values from the extension data to decide acceptable algorithms in lib/ext_signature.c.
    • CVE-2015-7575

This patch effectively disables the use of RSA+MD5 certificates provided by the server. Note that root CA certs on the client can still be using this signature algorithm.

It turned out that on one of the mail servers in our cluster, the SMTP daemon was configured to provide the root CA certificate as part of its intermediate chain. So the server was providing its own certificate, the two required intermediate certificates and the superfluous root certificate.

In case you are unaware why the server does not need to provide the root certificate it is because the client has to already have a copy of the root certificate locally so that it can verify the identity of the certificate chain passed from the server. These root certificates are distributed by various software vendors and are built into things like your browser. A good example of one of these vendors is Mozilla.

So when the server provided the root CA certificate as part of the chain, GnuTLS could see that this certificate was using an RSA+MD5 signature algorithm and it would not allow the connection to proceed at all and simply output an obscure message:

gnutls_handshake: The signature algorithm is not supported

Could not negotiate TLS connection

Fixing the problem

NOTE: this will have an emphasis on Ubuntu 12.04 but what you need to do is the same, even if the commands are not.

First of all, the easiest fix is simply do not have the server include the unneeded root CA certificate in the chain it provides to the client. Done!

If for some reason (may it be technical or political) you cannot simply apply the easy fix, there is another way to correct this. Thawte actually has a replacement RSA+SHA1 certificate available from their website that we can use to swap out for the RSA+MD5 certificate. You can download this certificate from the following location.

https://search.thawte.com/support/ssl-digital-certificates/index?page=content&id=AR1470

I recommend downloading the certificate and saving it to a file in your /usr/share/ca-certificates/ directory.

Next up, you have the option to manually edit the /etc/ca-certificates.conf file to remove the bad certificate, re-add the new certificate and then run update-ca-certificates. I like to mention this method just because it could be better for those of you using configuration management software.

An alternative method and also potentially easier if you are only doing this once would be to run the following command. Once prompted simply select ask. It will prompt you again, this time to enable or disable different root certificates in your root store. Simply deselect the mozilla/Thawte_Premium_Server_CA.crt certificate and then enable your new certificate in the same menu.

dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates

This will ensure your server is now providing the RSA+SHA1 version of the Thawte Premium Server CA certificate and the GnuTLS library on the client side should be happy. It will also ensure that your server is still able to verify the identity of any other servers it tries to connect securely to if they are using a certificate tied to this root.